The questions of development and global inequality appear to be the crucial problems of modern world. These questions played significant role in the post-war world after 1945. One of the phenomena of the Cold War period was a decolonization in the then emerging Third World. After 1945 the world had entered into the phase of radical changes because of the fall of existing European powers’ position. The colonial empires like Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Belgium were unable to control their colonies anymore, however they made attempts to do it. The political elites of those colonial European countries were unable to accept the fact that the nations of Asia (later Africa) expected independence and the right to self-government.
Keywords: post-colonialism, independence, Cold War, client states, modernization theory, US policy